October 20, 2021
– Professor Vijay Prasad
(Brief Tamil version of the speech delivered at the online meeting held on 24.09.2021 on behalf of the Indian Institute of Social Sciences, Chennai)
I am very happy to participate in this meeting. I remember well. I lived in Chennai for a few years about 16 years ago. B. who last became a renowned journalist and researcher in connection with a workshop about 3 years ago. Sainath I participated with them. We also spoke at a meeting of the Indian Institute of Social Sciences that evening. Those shows were so much fun. In fact, every moment with Sainath is worthwhile and enjoyable.
What we are all familiar with is the international multinationals in general. Examples include NATO and G-7. But not many people know about the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), a SCO created in 2001 at the initiative of China. India is also a part of it. The organization was set up to promote mutual cooperation in the political, economic and security affairs of the Asian-European countries. Countries that make up 40 percent of the world’s population are members. The aim is to enhance cooperation between the member states in the areas of trade, culture and humanitarian assistance, in the face of threats and challenges in the region.
There is no doubt that the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, of which the founding countries of Afghanistan, including Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and China, are facing such a complex situation today, will take steps to deal with this extraordinary situation.
Afghanistan Last Communist President, Mohammed Najibullah
I would like to say one thing first. I urge you not to look at the country through the lens of terrorism, keeping only the fact that the Taliban have seized power in Afghanistan today. Or don’t see it as a barbaric country. It is a country with a long history and reform efforts.
Let us now turn to the history of Afghanistan. I’m not going to go into very old history. We are only going to look at a history of about a century. Beyond the northwestern border of British India, along the border of the then Russian Empire, the British Empire had been trying to capture Afghanistan since the early 18th century. The British continued to lose three Anglo-Afghan wars over a hundred years from 1820 to 1919. King Amanullah Khan, who became emir in 1919, declared Afghanistan a country completely liberated from the British.
He also expelled British troops from the country’s borders, weakened as a result of World War I. Subsequently, an agreement was signed in Rawalpindi on August 8, 1919 to secure the independence of Afghanistan. It is noteworthy that even before the signing of this peace treaty with the British, he had established a friendly treaty with the Soviet government. Afghanistan was one of the first countries to recognize the Soviet Union after the November Revolution. The friendship between the two countries continued until December 1979.
Amir Amanullah, who had ties to the Ottoman Empire in those days trying to modernize the Muslim community, married a woman named Suraya from the area. Suraya was the first to start schools for girls in Afghanistan. Afghan landlords and mullahs came out against such social reforms of Amanullah. British India also incensed their communal hatred against the Emir.
Communists took power in Afghanistan- Saur Revolution, 1978.
For example, when Amanullah and Suraya traveled to European countries, British intelligence distributed anti-Amanullah propaganda, filming Queen Suraya Tarzai sitting and talking equally with other foreign men, and distributing the photos among Afghan communalists.
Despite conflicts with various ethnic groups in Afghanistan, it was Amir Amanullah who escaped British control and recaptured the Afghan border today. Relatives of his race were opposed to these reform efforts. He also had to face opposition from rural aristocrats, mullahs, and urban conservatives. There was, however, overwhelming support for his reform efforts among the people. As soon as he opened the schools people eagerly enrolled their children in it.
Lenin has been writing letters to Amir Amanullah since 1919 on the need to preserve the uniqueness of Afghanistan. However, efforts to secure the country’s borders and quell ethnic conflict lasted until 1965. It is noteworthy that in the election to the Afghan parliament that year, four of the seven winners on behalf of the Communist Party, which had been launched the previous year, were women. This is the result of the impact of Amanullah’s reform measures.
Its growth has not been significant as a result of the ongoing factionalism and distortions within the Afghan Communist Party. Nevertheless the structure of the communist supporters spread not only in the villages but also in the army. One reason for this was the Soviet Union’s continued supply of economic, military, and military supplies to Afghanistan following the Treaty of 1919.
Inspired by communist policies, the youth went to distant parts of the country and became actively involved in spreading education. At that time, the Mujahideen who had migrated to Pakistan and were operating in the border areas of that country were carrying out murderous attacks on them. Thus thousands of young people were massacred. The then Pakistani dictator Ziaul Haq intervened in Afghanistan, blaming the Mujahideen. However, he was unable to employ Afghanistan.
1973 was also a time of significant progress in Western history. Mujibur Rahman paved the way for the emergence of democratic and progressive ideas in Afghanistan at the same time as the secession of Pakistan from Bangladesh. After the Bangladesh war, Bhutto came to power in Pakistan again with the intervention of democracy. In India, Indira Gandhi’s nationalization of banks and the abolition of monarchies helped to develop socialist ideas in the region.
It was in this context that the leader of the Mujahideen group operating from Pakistan went to the United States in 1973 to receive funding for the construction. Sectarian Saudi Arabia has also provided significant funding to the Mujahideen, the strongholds of today’s Taliban. Their continued onslaught resulted in a major crisis for the then ruling Zahir Shah government. In such a crisis situation, Mohammad Dawood Khan, who has long held a powerful position as Prime Minister in the Afghan government, ousted Amir Zahir Shah in the name of strengthening the country. Began to attack the Communists. At the same time, Saddam Hussein launched an offensive in Iraq in 1978 against the Communists there. In 1979, the US ambassador to Kabul was assassinated for continuing to speak out against the Mujahideen. In April 1978, two factions of the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), the Communist Party of India (Kalk – Kalk – Mass, Parcham – paarssam – banner), defeated Dawood Khan in a military coup. Taraki, Amin and Babarak Carmel are the leaders. Taraki became president. Unity did not last long. In September 1978, Amin overthrew Taraki during the Palace Revolution. Taraki was killed. In December 1978, the PDPA government signed a military agreement with the Soviet Union. In April 1978, two factions of the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), the Communist Party of India (Kalk – Kalk – Mass, Parcham – paarssam – banner), defeated Dawood Khan in a military coup. Taraki, Amin and Babarak Carmel are the leaders. Taraki became president. Unity did not last long. In September 1978, Amin overthrew Taraki during the Palace Revolution. Taraki was killed. In December 1978, the PDPA government signed a military agreement with the Soviet Union. In April 1978, two factions of the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), the Communist Party of India (Kalk – Kalk – Mass, Parcham – paarssam – banner), defeated Dawood Khan in a military coup. Taraki, Amin and Babarak Carmel are the leaders. Taraki became president. Unity did not last long. In September 1978, Amin overthrew Taraki during the Palace Revolution. Taraki was killed. In December 1978, the PDPA government signed a military agreement with the Soviet Union. In September 1978, Amin overthrew Taraki during the Palace Revolution. Taraki was killed. In December 1978, the PDPA government signed a military agreement with the Soviet Union. In September 1978, Amin overthrew Taraki during the Palace Revolution. Taraki was killed. In December 1978, the PDPA government signed a military agreement with the Soviet Union.
In the wake of the tragic event, in which the Indonesian Communist Party was already dismembered by the frenzy of imperialist foot soldiers and the massacre of millions of communists there, the assassination of its border country, Afghanistan, with the onslaught of communist attacks on communists in many parts of the world at the instigation of US imperialism was on the rise. The Union sent troops to Afghanistan in December 1979. Amin was assassinated in December 1979 and Babarak Carmel came to power. He remained in office until 1986.
The Soviet-backed Najibullah (Afghanistan Last Communist President, Mohammed Najibullah) became president in 1986. It was during his rule that land reform, literacy, women’s education, modern technologies, employment and social equality began to spread in Afghanistan. However, in order to destabilize Soviet-backed Afghanistan, not only the great landlords and mullahs from within, but also neighboring Pakistan, US imperialism, and other Western countries, as well as religious fundamentalist countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, have resorted to the militant militant force of the reactionary Mujahideen.
The money of the landlords, who largely cultivated the drug opium, was also against the Soviet-backed regime. The massacre of the Mujahideen continued across borders in the capital, Kabul. The influence of the Mujahideen, the patrons of today’s Taliban, increased. Soviet troops withdrew from Afghanistan in 1988 after 15 years of civil war. After 1989, only Afghan forces fought. In 1994, the Taliban seized power in Afghanistan and ended democracy. The women were stuffed back into the house. The land reform, the spread of education, the advancement of women and the democratic sentiments carried out under Najibullah’s rule were completely destroyed and the religious fundamentalist rule of the landlords and mullahs was established. Najibullah was captured and shot dead in 1996.
It was during this period that religious extremist groups such as Al Qaeda and ISIS began to take root in Taliban-held areas and along the border with Pakistan. Behind the growth of such religious fundamentalists were the landlords, mullahs, the sectarian monarchy of Saudi Arabia, US imperialism and its supporting forces, which were immersed in the opium trade. When Al Qaeda, which grew fat with the support of US imperialism, launched a direct attack on the United States on September 11, 2001, as if it were pouring into the chest of the then-developed cadre, the United States launched a worldwide campaign against Islamic terrorism, declaring it a war on terror.
As part of the war, the United States mobilized all of its allies, Britain and NATO, to oust the Taliban from Afghanistan in 2001 and maintain their supportive regime, and to station its strong forces on Iraqi Afghan soil. It also says it has spent $ 2.76 trillion on maintaining peace on Afghan soil over the past twenty years. In fact, we must remember that this money was spent on the forces stationed there, on the Afghan right-wing politicians who were its supporters, and on their loyalists and agents, and not on development projects, humanitarian programs, or technological improvements on Afghan soil. In fact, many places in the capital, Kabul, where the US forces are stationed, have no access to electricity. This is the message of the United States of America. Even during these twenty years of US military presence, the rule of mullahs, landlords and drug smugglers continued.
The fact is that the United States has now made a deal with the Taliban and left Afghanistan, just as it has already wreaked havoc in Iraq and annihilated that soil, and then left there with a vengeance. It is a well-known fact that many of the US soldiers who massacred millions of Afghans became addicted to opium, a drug freely available in Afghanistan, and became involved in drug trafficking. The United States and its allies have left to escape such a situation.
Thus we must understand that despite the apparent humiliation of the United States, it has left the regime in the hands of the Taliban, the anti-communist, anti-democratic forces that it continues to carry out, without even saving the people who have served the United States for the past twenty years. We also see the formation of a Taliban cabinet after consulting with the Pakistani ISI, a US intelligence agent.
This raises the question of what the future holds for Afghanistan. The future of Afghanistan may be determined by how the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, of which its border nations Russia and China are members, approaches Taliban rule. Chinese Foreign Minister Talks has reportedly held talks with the Taliban leader in Doha. It is in this context that we need to closely monitor the activities of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
I would like to once again thank the Indian Institute of Social Sciences for taking this opportunity.
In Tamil: வீ. Come on. Ganesan